In this paper a detailed analysis of the physical structure of sounds produced by male Padogobius martensi is reported. Sound production occurs during courtship and inter-male agonistic encounters. Both aggressive and courtship calls are made up of rapidly repeated pulses, with a pulse repetition rate decreasing through the course of the emission. By means of computerized analysis, the pulse repetition rate, its modulation and sound duration were determined. The water temperature was found to exert a marked and significant effect on the above parameters. In particular, the temperature directly affects the pulse rate and its decrease through the course of the emission (i.e. frequency modulation) and inversely affects sound duration. By contrast, size of the calling animal does not significantly influence the sound parameters considered. Aggressive sounds last longer and have a lower pulse repetition rate than the courtship sounds. Moreover, aggressive sounds appear more variable than the courtship ones as far as pulse rate and duration are concerned.