In a number of songbird species presentation of conspecific son from tape during the sensitive phase for song learning results in deficiencies in song structure. Examples are given to illustrate the effects of different tutoring regimes and to show that different levels of structural organization of song can be influenced to different degrees. The failure of young male nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos to acquire species-typical song from tape (without visual contact with a human tutor) is apparent on two levels: not all model song types presented are copied, and individual song types are acquired less accurately than by control males (Todt, Hultsch & Heike 1979: Z. Tierpsychol., 51, 23-35). Tape-tutored male starlings Sturnus vulgaris differ from males kept with a conspecific as tutor in a number of song features, e.g. repertoire size, amount of song material acquired, and stability of sequential order of song sections. They copy individual song types (motifs), however, as accurately as live-tutored males and develop a comparable number of improvised motifs (Chaiken, Böhner & Marler: in prep.).